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Glossary of terms: Click term for its definition.

Adhesion(s)
Abnormal cross-linking of connective tissue which involves partial loss of movement. An adhesion in the abdomen, or even more distantly related part of the body, could result in pelvic pain and dysfunction. Adhesions may occur as the result of tissue damage from surgery and other injuries including traumatic injury, hematomas, inflammatory diseases, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, radiation therapy, infections which cause abscesses, and scars. Adhesions cause two tissues to stick to each other which changes the pressures in body cavities and creates a pulling and tension in the body which in turn creates a detrimental effect on fascia and structures of the body. 
Anorgasmia
Failure to achieve orgasm (climax) during sexual activity or with self-stimulation. 
Bartholins Glands
Greater vestibular glands located posteriorly one on each side near the entrance to the vagina.
Bartholins Glands 2
Greater vestibular glands located posteriorly one on each side near the entrance to the vagina.
Biofeedback
A process that enables an individual to learn how his/her body is functioning and how to control patterns of physiological activity for the purposes of improving health and performance. Precise instruments measure physiological activity such as muscle activity.. These instruments rapidly and accurately "feed back" information to the user in the form of sound, light or a picture or graph. The presentation of this information supports desired physiological changes. Over time, these changes can endure without continued use of an instrument.
Bladder prolapse
Protrusion of the bladder through the vagina.
Bowel frequency
Excessively frequent bowel movements (may be defined as greater than 3 bowel movements per day). Bowel habits vary widely among healthy people.
Bowel prolapse
Protrusion of the bowel through the anus.
Bowel resection
A surgical procedure in which a part of the large intestine is removed. The procedure is also known as colectomy, colon removal, colon resection, or resection of part of the large intestine. A small bowel resection is the surgical removal of one or more segments of the small intestine.
Bowel urgency
The sudden, almost uncontrollable, need to defecate. This often results in having to rush to have a bowel movement (even if one is not able to eliminate stool when one gets to the toilet).
Candidiasis
Chronic yeast (eg.Candida albicans, C. spp) infection. This is a fungal infection and responds to treatment with anti-fungal medication. It is important to create a healthy environment in the body which makes it less susceptible to infection. An example of this would be healthy muscle function in the vagina so that good blood flow and oxygen exchange is facilitated. Addition of healthy bacteria in the form of probiotics or yogurt with cultures is especially important after anti-biotic treatment for a bacterial infection (the antibiotic can deplete the body of necessary bacteria neded to keep a yeast infection at bay).
Chronic (Abacterial) Nonbacterial Prostatitis
(Sometimes with inflammation IIIA, or without inflammation IIIB)
It has been estimated that this category involves 90-95% of all cases diagnosed as “prostatitis.” Also known as Prostadodynia or chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS).
Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS)
Chronic pelvic pain, discomfort or dysfunction which may include rectal, genital or abdominal pain, urinary frequency &/or urgency as well as discomfort during &/or after sexual activity. May also be known as prostatitis, interstitial cystitis, isolated orchalgia, levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax, pudendal nerve entrapment syndrome, vulvodynia, urethral syndrome or related conditions.
Clitoris
Erectile tissue, the external portion of which is found in front of the urethra. The major organ of sexual pleasure in women.
Clitorodynia
A localized form of vulvodynia with pain in or around the clitoris.This sometimes manifests as an uncomfortable constant low level of sexual stimulation.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy
A form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the important role of thinking in how we feel and what we do. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviors, not external things, like people, situations, and events. The benefit of this fact is that we can change the way we think to feel / act better even if the situation does not change. It is briefer than traditional psychotherapy (e.g. psychoanalysis), and time limited. Homework is a central feature of the therapy, which is structured and directive, and is based on an educational model.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
A chronic condition that usually affects one area of the body. One may experience intense burning or aching pain along with swelling, skin discoloration, altered temperature, abnormal sweating and hypersensitivity in the affected area. Changes in hair and nail growth, joint stiffness, swelling and damage, muscle spasms, weakness and loss (atrophy) and decreased ability to move the affected body part may ensue.
Constipation

Bowel movements that are difficult to pass, very firm, or made up of small hard pellets qualify as constipation, even if they occur every day. Other symptoms related to constipation can include bloating, distention, abdominal pain, headaches, a feeling of fatigue and nervous exhaustion, or a sense of incomplete emptying. Defecation may be painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) may lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. The definition of constipation includes the following:

  • Infrequent bowel movements (typically less than every 3 days)
  • Difficulty during defecation (straining during more than 25% of bowel movements or a subjective sensation of hard stools), or:
  • The sensation of incomplete bowel evacuation.
Core
The inner (deep) muscles of your trunk, which are used to stabilize your body in anticipation of movement, and during vigorous activities. These muscle include the transverse abdominus, multifidus and pelvic floor muscles. The transverse abdominus is like a corset around your abdomen. It’s the muscle you work if you draw in while saying, "shhhhhhhhhhh”. The multifidus is a muscle that lies along your spine from your neck to your pelvis, with short fibers connecting one bone (vertebra) of the spine to other vertebrae near it. The muscles of the pelvic floor are most noticeable when you squeeze to keep yourself from urinating.
Core stabilization (strengthening)

A training technique designed to strengthen the muscles of the core. The techniques help you learn to use the inner muscles of your trunk (the “core”) before you start to move. The focus is on stability, breathing, and smooth, coordinated movement. The main muscles involved in core stabilization are deep muscles such as the transverse abdominus, the multifidus, and the muscles of the pelvic floor.

Every time we move, we depend on some muscles to hold us steady, and other muscles to actually move us. Core stabilization is the general term for how the muscles of your trunk keep your spine and body stable. This helps you stay balanced when you move. Your trunk is the foundation for your posture, balance, and coordinated movement. The muscles of your trunk-your core-can be strengthened and trained to contract in the proper order to give you this stable foundation for movement. If your core muscles are strong and they contract when they should, your posture is better; your body is balanced; your movement is more efficient and powerful; you may be less likely to be injured.

Cystocele
A weakening of the anterior vaginal wall causing a bulging of part of the bladder into the vagina. This is usually only problematic if it is a large part that can be felt in the vagina, or actually bulges out of the vagina. Symptoms are a fullness or pressure in the vagina.
Coccygodynia
Pain in and around the region of the coccyx (tailbone); the coccygeal region is usually markedly tender. This condition can be one of the many causes of pelvic muscle spasm and dysfunction.
Detrussor Instability
Also known as an unstable bladder or an overactive bladder. The smooth or involuntary muscles of the bladder contract at inopportune times, and give the feeling of needing to urinate, even when the volume of urine is small.
Diastasis Recti
A separation between the left and right side of the rectus abdominis muscle, which covers the front surface of the belly area. It looks like a ridge, which runs down the middle of the belly area. It may stretch from the bottom of the breastbone to the belly button, and beyond. It is a common symptom of pregnancy and increases with muscle straining, Occasionally surgery is required to fix the separation, but it generally responds very well to rehabilitation.
Diastasis Symphysis Pubis
An abnormally wide gap between the two pubic bones at the symphysis pubis joint situated at the front of the pelvis. The symphysis can gap slightly, causing pain. Pain is usually felt low down over the symphysis pubis joint, which can be extremely painful to the touch.  Pain may also be felt in the hips, groin and lower abdomen and can radiate down the inner thighs, and into the genitals.  Pain is increased by walking and all weight bearing activities particularly lifting one leg eg. stairs, movement in bed. Sometimes a "clicking" can be heard and felt. The most common causes are trauma or childbirth.
Diverticulitis
Infection or inflammation of small pouches in the colon that bulge outward through weak spots.
Dysfunctional voiding

An abnormality in either the storage or emptying phase of micturition (urination) and is associated with urgency, frequency, incontinence, and urinary tract infections. It is important to distinguish dysfunctional voiding from enuresis. With enuresis, there is normal voiding with complete expulsion of urine at a socially less acceptable time or place. Enuresis occurs more frequently at night (nocturnal), can occur during the day (diurnal), and is usually self-limiting.

This term is used to reflect the broad spectrum of functional disturbances that may affect the urinary tract including overactive bladder [OAB], underactive bladder, or dysfunction of the pelvic floor musculature (dysfunctional voiding), or decreased force of detrusor contractions (underactive bladder). There are 2 major categories of functional voiding disorders:

  • Filling disorders: overactive bladder, over distention of bladder or insensate bladder, which may be associated with fecal impaction or rectal distention with infrequent bowel movements
  • Functional disorder of emptying: over-recruitment of pelvic floor activity during voiding causing interrupted and/or incomplete emptying also associated with defecation difficulties due to non- relaxation of the pelvic floor muscle, uncoordinated defecation or pain with defecation.
Dyspareunia
This is pain in the vagina or pelvis experienced during and/or after sexual intercourse. This can be primary (developing before or from the time of becoming sexually active) or secondary (developing after months or years of comfortable sexual activity).
Dysmenorrhea
Chronic, often severe, menstrual pain and/or cramps.
These can be experienced just before or during a menstrual period.
Dysuria
Painful or difficult urination. This includes burning on urination.
Encopresis
Soiling of the underwear with stool once a child is past the age of toilet training. It often occurs as a result of constipation, or when a child resists having bowel movements, causing impacted stool to collect in the colon and rectum. When the colon is full of impacted (firm) stool, liquid stool can leak around the impacted stool and out of the anus causing staining.
Endometriosis
Presence of endometrial tissue (lining of the uterus) in abdominal or pelvic locations. The main symptom is premenstrual and menstrual pain. It can cause pain with sexual intercourse or bowel elimination. Generally treatments include hormone therapy , surgery and physical therapy.
Enterocele
This occurs when the colon and/or small bowel herniate into the upper part of the vaginal wall. Also called herniation of the colon and small bowel.
Enuresis
(Nocturnal Enuresis) Bedwetting
Episiotomy
An incision made in the perineum during childbirth to enlarge the opening of the vagina when necessary. This can sometimes extend by tearing into the tissue of the anus.
Erectile dysfunction (ED)
The consistent inability to obtain or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual relations.
Erythema
Redness (indicating superficial inflammation) eg. of the vestibule or area of the pelvic floor leading into the vaginal opening.
Fascia (Fascial)
A sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue enveloping, separating, or binding together muscles, organs, and other soft structures of the body.
Fascial Restriction
Abnormal adherence of connective tissue to itself or to other tissues which impedes normal, fluid movement of tissues across each other.
Fecal Incontinence
This is leakage of stool when it is socially not appropriate.
Fissure
A linear tear in the distal anal canal which can give rise to distressing symptoms of anal pain and bleeding with or after defecation.
Fistula
An abnormal connection between an organ, vessel, or intestine and another structure. Fistulas are usually the result of injury or surgery. It can also result from infection or inflammation.
Fourchette
Fold of membrane at perineal or posterior end of vulva.
Hemorrhoids
These are swollen blood vessels in and around the anus that cause itching, pain, and sometimes bleeding. They can be internal in origin, which means they come from higher up in the anus (these are seen as mucosal covered, and generally not painful unless thrombosed). Hemorrhoids which are generally more painful arise from the lower end of the anus, and are covered with normal skin, which contains pain nerve endings.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
The wart virus of which certain strains can lead to cervical cancer.
Hysterectomy
Surgical removal of the uterus.
Impaction
A blocked colon from a mass of stool that can't be moved by colon contractions.
Incontinence (urinary stress, urge, mixed; fecal)
A condition in which the involuntary loss of urine or feces is a social or hygienic problem. (A symptom or sign, not a disease).
Interstitial Cystitis
This is a complex chronic disorder, not involving a bacterial infection. It is characterized by an inflamed or irritated bladder wall. Symptoms are usually associated with lower abdominal, supra-pubic or pelvic pain, severe urinary urgency and frequency.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
A functional disorder in which the bowel does not function correctly, resulting in a group of symptoms including abdominal pain or discomfort, cramping, bloating, gas diarrhea &/or constipation. The nerves and muscles in the bowel appear to be extra sensitive in people with IBS. Muscles may contract too much when you eat. These contractions can cause cramping and diarrhea during or shortly after a meal. The nerves may react when the bowel stretches, causing cramping or pain. Women with IBS often have more symptoms during their menstrual periods.
Introitus
Vaginal opening.
Labia Majora
Outer lips of the vulva.
Labia Minora
Inner lips of the vulva.
Levator Ani Syndrome
This is a painful condition in the anorectal region. It typically causes a dull vague ache in the perineum and anus, occurring for longer periods, and more frequently than in Proctalgia Fugax. The pain is usually caused by a spasm or dysfunction in the striated or voluntary muscles of the pelvic floor.
Lichens Planus
A disorder of the skin and mucous membranes resulting in inflammation, itching, and distinctive skin lesions. It has been known to develop after exposure to potential allergens such as medications, dyes, and other chemical substances. Symptoms are increased with emotional stress, possibly because of changes in immune system during stress. The initial attack may last for weeks to months, and come and go for years.
Lichen Sclerosus
A skin condition that usually affects the vulva area (the outside parts of the female genitalia) and the anal area in young girls, adolescents, and adults. It makes the vulva look white, slightly shiny, and smooth. The skin's surface becomes thin and delicate so that it tears easily. This can cause bleeding under the skin. In severe cases scarring can occur. This causes the inner lips of the vulva to get smaller. The clitoris can become covered in scar tissue. Symptoms may include itching in the vulvar area, skin that appears fragile pale &/or white, bruised skin with broken blood vessels &/or blood blisters, small tears or fissures in the skin, scar tissue on the labia or clitoris, bleeding or tearing of skin with bowel movements.
Megabladder
Permanent over-stretching of the bladder. This may result in inability to adequately contract the bladder in order to void urine, resulting in urinary retention.
Megarectum
Permanent over-stretching of the rectum. This may result in inability to adequately contract the rectum in order to evacuate stool, resulting in constipation or impaction.
Motility
This refers to the rate of propulsion of the products of digestion through each part of the digestive tract. It spans from the time the food enters the esophagus to the time it exits the anus.
Motility disorders
Motility disorders refer to abnormal intestinal contractions in the digestive tract which interfere with the normal propulsion of products of digestion . These can occasionally be severe due to spasms or intestinal paralysis. This can result in the inability to eat and severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, diarrhea, constipation.
Myofascial (Trigger Point) Release
Manual therapy technique used to stretch and open the fascia or connective tissue around muscles that, over time, may have tightened up due to stress and anxiety, scar tissue, injury, endometriosis or surgery.
Myofascial Trigger Point
A knot or taut band in a muscle or connective tissue that refers pain at the site of the trigger point &/or to a site remote from the actual trigger point.
Neuromuscular re-education
Technique used by rehabilitation therapists to restore normal movement. Together, your nerves and muscles work to produce movements. Nerves send signals between your muscles and your brain about when, where, and how fast to move. It is a complex process. Over time, neural connections are reinforced and muscle movement (motor) patterns are learned and stored in your memory. For example, this explains why you remember how to go up steps and automatically know how to adjust your movements for tall or short steps.

Muscle movement patterns are affected when nerves or muscles experience damage or injury. This can result from trauma, medical conditions, and neurological conditions. Neuromuscular re-education is one method used by rehabilitation therapists to facilitate the return of normal movement in persons with neuromuscular impairments. When the nerve signals are “retrained” and appropriate muscle movements are repeated, movement patterns become automatic again.

Nocturia
Waking in the middle of the night to urinate.
Nocturnal Enuresis
Bedwetting
Obstipation
Severe constipation which prevents passage of both stool and gas.
Obstruction
A partial or complete blockage of the bowel that results in the failure of the intestinal contents to pass through. A common cause of obstruction is scar tissue from an injury or previous surgery which can develop over many years.
Oophorectomy
Surgical removal of the ovaries, sometimes performed in conjunction with a hysterectomy or surgical removal of the uterus. A cause of surgically-induced menopause.
Overactive bladder
Uninhibited contractions of the bladder muscle. The muscle contracts strongly, resulting in urinary urgency.
Paradoxical Contraction of Pelvic Floor Muscles
Contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor when they should be relaxing, for example, tightening the muscles around the anus while trying to have a bowel movement.
Paradoxical Relaxation
(Technique developed by David Wise, PhD): A modification of Progressive Relaxation (Jacobsen): a technique in which one relaxes muscle tension while accepting that tension. It involves accepting being present with one’s current state without efforting or trying to change it.
Pelvic Congestion (syndrome)
Is caused by a disorder in the veins connected to the pelvic area. In patients with pelvic congestion syndrome, leakage occurs in the valves in the veins that assist in blood flow from the pelvic area toward the heart. Blood then flows backward and pools in the veins, causing pain and discomfort.

In patients with Pelvic congestion syndrome, the valves that prevent blood from flowing backward (away from the heart) do not work properly; this allows blood to pool where it does not belong. This pooling causes the veins to stretch, putting unhealthy amounts of stress on veins and vein walls, and with painful results. The uterus, ovaries, and vulva may all be affected by pelvic congestion syndrome. In males this can affect their genitalia, causing pelvic pain and dysfunction.

Pelvic Floor Muscles
A large hammock of muscles stretching from side to side across the floor of the pelvis. It is attached to your pubic bone in front, and to the the tail end of your spine behind. The openings from the bladder, bowels and uterus/vagina all pass through the pelvic floor. It supports the pelvic organs and the contents of the abdomen, especially when one is standing or exerting oneself. It supports the bladder to help it stay closed, and actively squeezes during coughing or sneezing to help avoid leaking. It is used to control wind and when "holding on" with your bowels. It helps to increase sexual awareness and pleasure both for yourself and your partner during sexual intercourse.
Pelvic Floor Muscle Dysfunction
A condition in which the muscles of the pelvic floor do not contract or relax properly. It may include muscle spasm, weakness or muscle incoordination.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
An infection of a woman’s reproductive organs. Treating PID is important, because PID can cause scar tissue in the pelvic organs and lead to infertility. It can also lead to other problems, such as pelvic pain and tubal (ectopic) pregnancy.
Pelvic organ prolapse
Herniation (protrusion) of a pelvic organ from it’s appropriate anatomical location. A condition where organs, such as the uterus, bladder, rectum or bowel fall down or slip out of place. It is a term used for organs protruding through the vagina or the anus. (see also: uterine prolapse, bladder prolapse, rectal prolapse, bowel prolapse).
Perineum
Area between the vagina and anus, or testicles and anus.
Polyuria
Excessive passage of urine, often associated with urinary frequency.
Proctalgia Fugax
This is severe pain in the rectum, usually of short duration, which occurs infrequently. It may be due to a spasm caused by an abnormality of the muscles around the rectum, which cause them to go into spasm.
Prolapse
Herniation (protrusion) of an organ from its appropriate anatomical location. A condition where organs, such as the uterus, bladder, rectum or bowel fall down or slip out of place. It is a term used for organs protruding through the vagina or the anus. (see also: pelvic organ prolapse, uterine prolapse, bladder prolapse, rectal prolapse, bowel prolapse).
Prostatitis
(National Institutes of Health categories)

Category I: Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: (approximately 5% of reported diagnosis of prostatitis, i.e. relatively rare. Infection and inflammation are evident and traditional treatments with antibiotics work well.

Category II: Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis: Most occur because of inadequately treated acute prostatitis. Symptoms can be intermittent or constant, and men are usually free of symptoms between “attacks.” Also relatively rare i.e. 5% of all men who have prostatitis. Antibiotics are usually effective for acute flare-ups, but eradicating recurrent episodes is difficult as antibiotics may become less effective over time, because the bacteria m mutate and become resistant to treatment.

Category III: Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis (sometimes with inflammation 111A, or without inflammation 111B) It has been estimated that this category involves 90-95% of all cases diagnosed as “prostatitis.” Also known as Prostadodynia or chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS)

Category IV: Asymptomatic Prostatitis : Thought of as a “sleeper condition” in that a man will not recognize he has it because there are no subjective symptoms. PSA levels can rise, and evidence of inflammation through biopsy or examination of prostatic fluid under a microscope may be found.
Pubic Symphysis
The joint situated at the front of the pelvis where the two pubic bones join together.
Pudendal Nerve
Nerve which branches to supply the whole vulvar area, from the pubis to the anus. It travels under pelvic ligaments and muscles on its journey and is formed from nerve roots in the lumbosacral spine. In the male it supplies the penis, testicles, perineum and anus.
Pudendal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (Pudendal Neuralgia)
Entrapment is a bit of a catch all term. Stretching or rubbing of the pudendal nerve can also cause pudendal nerve entrapment. Muscle spasm or tightness along the path of the nerve can compress the nerve and cause dysfunction. In all cases the result is nerve irritation, which causes improper functioning of the nerve. An entrapped nerve misreports pain and causes organ dysfunction such as urinary, defecation, and sexual problems. Now, what causes entrapment? PNE is usually precipitated by prolonged sitting or trauma to the sitting area. The most common diagnoses are: prostatodynia, nonbacterial prostatitis, idiopathic vulvodynia (idiopathic means unknown cause), idiopathic orchialgia, idiopathic proctalgia, idiopathic penile pain, Levator ani syndrome, and coccydynia. "The reason for these many diagnoses is that the pudendal nerves innervate urogenital and anorectal tissues, cutaneous (skin) tissue, and many small but very important muscles in the perineum. Irritation of the pudendal nerves can cause muscle spasms in one or more of those muscles. Spasm of the external anal sphincter can cause constipation. Similarly, spasm of the external urethral sphincter can cause urinary hesitancy, mimicking prostatic problems. Spasm of any of the other muscles can cause discomfort and a feeling of tightness, cramping, etc.
Rectal Prolapse
Weakened pelvic floor muscles or excessive bearing down during elimination can cause the tissue in the rectum to prolapse. When this is severe, rectal mucosa or even rectal tissue can protrude from the anus.
Rectocele
This occurs when fascia weakens in the posterior wall of the vagina, allowing the front wall of the rectum to bulge into the vagina. It can sometimes be the cause of difficulty with bowel elimination.
Restriction
Abnormal adherence of soft tissue to itself or to other tissues which impedes normal, fluid movement of tissues across each other.
Sacrocolpopexy
Support of the vaginal vault by affixing it to the periosteum of the sacrum following a hysterectomy.
Sacroiliac (SI) Dysfunction
Imbalance in the alignment of the sacrum on the pelvis. Since the sacrum is attached to many of the muscles of the pelvis, tightness in these muscles can pull on the sacrum and shift its alignment. This places abnormal tension in the pelvic structure which can affect the entire body alignment.
Sexual dysfunction
Inability or impaired ability to engage in or enjoy satisfactory sexual intercourse and/or climax.
Sexual dysfunction (female)
Symptoms, include dyspareunia, vaginismus, persistent inability to reach orgasm, and inhibition in sexual arousal, so that congestion and vaginal lubrication are minimal or absent.
Sexual dysfunction (male)
Symptoms include difficulties in starting and maintaining an erection, premature ejaculation, inability to ejaculate, and loss of desire.
Skenes Glands
A pair of glands whose openings can be seen on either side of the urethral opening.
Stress Incontinence
This is involuntary leakage of urine when intra abdominal pressure is increased with daily activities. These activities include things like: coughing, sneezing, standing, lifting a package, playing a sport, jumping or sometimes even getting out of bed. This is most often a small leak of a few drops.
Trigger Point (Myofascial Trigger Point)
A knot or taut band in a muscle or connective tissue that refers pain at the site of the trigger point &/or to a site remote from the actual trigger point.
Trigger Point Release
This is a method of identifying and releasing knots or taut bands in the muscles. This restricted tissue refers pain either at the site of the trigger point and often to a site remote from the actual trigger point.
Underactive bladder
Decreased force of bladder muscle contractions.
Urethral Syndrome
Affects mainly women. Associated with dysuria (painful urination); a sense of straining in order to urinate; urinary frequency and urgency; urinary hesitancy; incontinence and supra pubic pain. Symptoms tend to be intermittent or constant, and they tend to wax and wane.
Urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra. may be caused by a bacteria, a virus, sensitivity to chemicals, or direct injury (sometimes caused during intercourse, which is why it has also been called honey moon cystitis). Symptoms include urinary frequency or urgency, burning during urination, itching, tenderness, or swelling in penis or groin area, fever, abdominal pain, pelvic pain, penile or vaginal discharge, pain with intercourse or ejaculation, blood in the urine or semen.
Urethrocele
A herniation of the urethra in females. It is characterized by a protrusion of a segment of the urethra and the connective tissue surrounding it into the anterior wall of the vagina. A herniation that is slight and high in the vagina may be palpable only on digital examination when the patient strains downward; one that is large and low in the anterior wall may bulge visibly at the vaginal introitus. A large urethrocele can cause difficulty in voiding, some degree of incontinence, urinary tract infection, and dyspareunia. The condition may be congenital or acquired and may be secondary to obesity, childbirth, or poor muscle tone. It can also be a prolapse of the female urethra through the urinary opening.
Urge Incontinence
This is the inability to hold urine long enough to reach a restroom. It is often a larger leak, like a tablespoon or more of urine.
Urinary Frequency
Feeling the urge to urinate even when urination has occurred very recently. This is often associated with detrusor instability (when the smooth or autonomic muscles of the bladder contract dysfuntionally). It can be caused by a sensitivity of the bladder to foods like caffeine, alcohol, artificial sweeteners, spicy or acidic foods. It also occurs with emotional stress, poor bladder training or pelvic muscle dysfunction.
Urinary retention
The inability to completely void the urinary bladder. This can occur when there is poor co-ordination of the voluntary pelvic floor muscles and involuntary bladder muscle. It may also be due to a bladder that cannot contract adequately to push urine out (due to over-stretching or nerve injury). In males this can be the result of progressive obstruction of the urethra by an enlarging prostate, causing urine to remain in the bladder even after urination.
Urinary urgency
Urinary urgency is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate. It is often, though not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence, polyuria (excessive passage of urine), nocturia (waking to void in the middle of the night), and interstitial cystitis. It tends to increase with age. This can be a symptom of dysfunctional voiding, and although the symptom of needing to urinate urgently is strong, there may be only a small amount of urine voided.
Uterine Prolapse
With weakened pelvic floor muscles, or excessive bearing down during elimination, the uterus can drop from its normal position. A grade one is a slight drop, a grade two drop starts approaching the vaginal outlet, a grade three protrudes slightly through the vagina, and a grade four can totally protrude outside the vagina.
Vaginismus
This is a painful spasmodic contraction of the vagina which makes sexual intercourse painful and sometimes impossible.
Vaginitis
Inflammation of the vagina.
Vestibule
Area outside the body between the labia minora with the clitoris at the top and the fourchette at the base. Includes the openings of the urethra and vagina as well as many small glands.
Visceral Mobilization
Manual therapy technique used to release organs in the body which have become bound due to scar tissue from injury, disease, endometriosis, or surgery.
Visceral Restriction
Brings about a loss of mobility and motility because of the inefficient sliding of the organ on its surrounding structures.   A visceral restriction occurs when an organ loses part or all of its ability to move resulting in a decrease in the mobility and motility of organs.  They can be caused by adhesions, fixations, etc.  A restriction, fixation or adhesion to another structure may result in functional impairment of the organ and/ or pain.
Vulva
Outer genitals of the female.
Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome (VVS)
Inflammation of the vestibule leading to pain on contact or pressure. It is noticed especially with pain at intercourse.

Primary vestibulitis: Pain on touch of vestibule from first attempt to insert tampon or from first sexual experience.

Secondary vestibulitis: Pain that develops after months or years of comfortable sex &/or tampon insertion.
Vulvodynia
This refers to a disorder of vulvar pain, burning, and discomfort that interferes with the quality of life. The term is used in 2 ways:

1. In dysaesthetic vulvodynia: Spontaneous, diffuse pain in the vulva of a (speculatively) neurological origin or of a neuralgic nature. (Hence also called pudendal neuralgia, as the pudendal nerve may be involved). Intercourse may or may not be painful.

2. As an overall term for any kind of vulvar pain. Eg. Vulvar vestibulitis is a subtype of vulvodynia, where there appears to be redness or focal areas of inflammation in the vulvar vestibule.